Pest Type: Bean Pest
Row: Lepidoptera – Lepidoptera
Family: Scoops – Noctuidae
Distributed everywhere. It damages peas, clover, alfalfa, lupine and other legumes, sugar beets, flax, onions, corn, potatoes, a lot of fields, garden, vegetable crops, as well as weeds.
Butterfly with a wingspan of 36-42 mm; fore wings black-brown with yellowish transverse lines; round and kidney-shaped spots are gray-brown, between them a blackish triangle. 0.75 mm egg, light yellow.
The caterpillar is 29-43 mm long, green with a black velvet back, two yellow spine-like stripes. Pupa-18-19 mm, dark brown. A pupa hibernates in a cocoon in the soil. Butterfly release begins in May. The departure period is long and is observed until mid-September.
Additionally, feed on flowering plants. The female lays eggs on the underside of the leaves in regular rows in one layer, in groups of 50 to 400 pieces in each clutch. After 8-10 days, caterpillars revive, which damages the leaves within a month. First-generation caterpillars complete development in July and migrate to pupation soil. Butterflies of the second generation fly in August-September. In the same months, the development of second-generation caterpillars occurs, which subsequently form a cocoon in the soil, pupate and remain in it until spring. Two generations are developing over the year.
Peas can be damaged: Agrotiscorticea Schiff., Which hibernates in the caterpillar stage of the II-IV centuries and develops in one generation; DiscestradianthiTausch-winters in the pupal or caterpillar stages of the last age and can produce 2-3 generations per year.
The number of scoops is reduced by some parasites. The eggs are infected with a Trichogramma. Several dozens of horsemen and mukhtahin parasitize on the tracks. Often there are braconids, chalcid, eulogies, tahini.
Protective measures. The number of pests is reduced by such agrotechnical measures as autumn plowing, cultivation, and destruction of weeds. Twice issue of Trichogramma against each generation at the beginning of the departure of butterflies and laying of eggs – 40-50 thousand per 1 ha. At the beginning of the revival of caterpillars, the use of biological products. Against caterpillars when exceeding the economic threshold of harmfulness, spraying with insecticides.
Pest Type: Fruit Pest
Row: Lepidoptera – Lepidoptera
Family: Ermine Moths – Yponomeutidae
It is found everywhere. It damages plums, cherry plums, apricots, cherries, cherries, thorns, mountain ash, and less commonly an apple tree.
Butterfly with a wingspan of 18-22 mm, front wings are white with 16-19 black dots located in three irregular rows; hind wings are gray. Egg 0.3 mm in size, yellowish, roundish. Caterpillar 14-16 mm long, yellow-gray; head, legs are black. Pupa – 8-11 mm, dark yellow; head, primordial wings, and cremaster are black. The cocoon is thin, white.
Caterpillars of the first age overwinter under the shield. At the end of April, they emerge from under the guards and immediately weave spider web nests, connecting leaves in pairs. Develop over 35-45 days, passing five centuries. Pellet in spider webs separately from each other. After 8-10 days, in late May-early June butterflies leave. Years last until mid-August. 14-16 days after the release of the butterfly mates, after which they begin to lay eggs on the 5-6 day. The female lays 15-40 eggs on smooth bark of thin branches and fills them with mucus, which quickly freezes in the air.
Fertility – 80-100 eggs. After 8-15 days, the caterpillars revive, fall into diapause and remain under a moisture-proof shield until the spring of next year. In spring, the caterpillars damage the leaves and braid the branches with a thick web. In the case of significant damage, the quantity and quality of the crop decreases, the growth of shoots decreases, the process of laying fruit buds is disrupted. The number of fruit ermine moths is reduced by adverse weather conditions for the pest and a significant number of entomophagous indicated for the apple ermine moth.
The protective measures are the same as for the apple ermine moth.
Spring cabbage fly is a pest of garden crops belonging to the cruciferous family. This insect is very difficult to remove from its site. You can only take control measures that protect plants from its effects.
In color and size, it resembles a housefly. Departure from the soil, according to the observations of some vegetable growers, coincides with the flowering of birch, and the laying of eggs with a flowering cherry.
CABBAGE FLY LARVAE
Eggs are laid in cracks in the soil near the stems of plants. Hatching larvae of the cabbage fly immediately penetrate into still immature stems or root crops. They gnaw passages in the stalks of cabbage and in the roots of radishes, turnips, radishes, daikons. Plants are greatly weakened, they bind in sunny weather, root crops lose their market value. In the photo, the cabbage fly is at the stage of the larva and adult.
The larvae that have gained mass pupate near the plants damaged by them. At the beginning of July the flies of a new generation appear (2nd generation).
They are less harmful since the tissues of cultivated plants at the level of the upper soil layer and the ground layer of air become “rougher”, that is, difficult to access for new generation larvae. Therefore, relatively speaking, summer flies will cause great damage only to newly emerging shoots of cruciferous weeds.
CABBAGE FLY CONTROL MEASURES
Protective measures include planting healthy, strong seedlings in the early stages (preferably in peat pots) in order to “overtake” the phenophases of the development of spring flies.
After planting, no later than the first three days, it is necessary to conduct a deterrent dusting with tobacco (shag) dust with slaked lime or ash (1: 1), or with naphthalene, or with camphor. They try to apply the mixture as close to the stem as possible, because of which the fly will not lay eggs next to it. After 6-7 days, the reception should be repeated. These are the available measures to control the cabbage fly.
The eggs of the cabbage fly are white, clearly visible, and they can simply be removed from the stem. In the future, released larvae will die from exhaustion.
Loosening the soil, especially after rain and watering, improves the living conditions of plants. Hilling, especially after watering and top dressing, will contribute to the formation of additional roots, thereby increasing the resistance of plants to damage.
The eggs of larvae and pupae are eaten by Staphylinidae and their larvae. They are black, elongated (10-12 mm); beetles have short wings.
Eggs of a cabbage fly are damaged by red ticks (they are visible on the surface of the soil), which suck out the contents of the eggs.
The control of cruciferous weeds in their area and adjacent territories throughout the summer season will contribute to the fact that the clutch of eggs of summer cabbage flies will be “ineffective”, and practically no spring cabbage flies will be observed next spring.
Pest Type: Cereal Pest
Row: Coleoptera – Coleoptera
Family: Banded – Scarabaeidae
The greatest harm is done to the southern forest-steppe and steppes of Russia. The beetle eats cereal grains during milk ripeness and knocks hard grains to the ground. It especially damages wheat, rye, barley, feeds on wild cereal grains. Larvae damage the roots of rye, wheat, corn, beets, sunflowers, potatoes, tobacco, fruit seedlings in nurseries.
The beetle is 12.8 – 16 mm long, the body is bluish-blue with a metallic luster; head and shield with a green shine; has antennae; elytra dark chestnut with a black square spot at the scutellum.
Larva up to 35 mm in size, White, with a brown-yellow head, antennae, and legs.
The bugs’ years last from the end of May to the beginning of August, but in some years these periods can fluctuate within two weeks of massive years – from June 11 to July 17. Beetles are active on hot sunny days, they fly, sit on ears and eat. Two weeks after the release, the laying of eggs begins, for which the female digs into the ground to a depth of 10 – 15 cm and lays eggs in small heaps, 2 to 3 doses of 30 to 40 pieces. Three weeks later, larvae emerge from the eggs, they feed on hummus and small roots of various plants, including cultivated ones, older larvae – mainly roots.
Wintering: in the fall they go into the soil to a depth of 30 – 80 cm, and in the spring they rise again to the surface. During the summer, molt twice.
Pupation takes place in soil soils at a depth of 10 – 15 cm. About two weeks are in the pupal stage, after which adults come out. In connection with the two-year development cycle, the summer years are observed in a year. The number of beetle bugs is reduced by nematodes, fungal and bacterial diseases, on the larvae tahina parasitizes.
Protective measures. Inter-row tillage of cultivated crops and steam fields by 10 – 12 cm (late May-early June) to destroy larvae and pupae. Processing of edge bands of cereal crops during the period of grain filling with insecticides in the presence of 3 – 5 beetles per 1 m 2.
Pest Type: Potato Pest
Quarantine pests in the southern steppes of Russia. It damages potatoes, especially tubers in storage, tobacco, eggplant, tomatoes, Datura, nightshade and other cultivated and weedy nightshade. Butterfly 12-16 mm in size, fore wings broadly lanceolate, brownish-gray, with a dark inner edge, yellow scales and dark brown strokes; hind wings with a notch along the outer edge, the fringe is longer than the width of the wing; in males on the front edge there is a long hairbrush, reaching the middle of the wing.
The egg is 0.8 mm in size, oval, pearly white. Caterpillar 8-10 mm long, yellow-orange or gray-green with a longitudinal stripe in the middle of the back and small dark shields on the body; thoracic flap black, anal yellow. The pupa is 5-6.5 mm, brown, with a small cremaster and setae at the end of the abdomen, located in a silky silver-gray cocoon.
Caterpillars of older ages and pupae in cocoons overwinter in natural conditions. In potato storages at 15 ° C and above, pest development continues on potato tubers in the winter. In the spring, in case of planting tubers with eggs laid on them or populated by caterpillars or pupae, the pest again enters the field.
Butterflies fly to the south of Russia in May. Butterflies fly at night, from sunset to sunrise, and 1-2 hours after sunrise. A day after mating, the females lay their eggs, placing them below on the leaves, on the stems, soil, naked potato tubers one by one or in small heaps. For 2-16 days, one female is able to lay up to 300 eggs.
Depending on the temperature conditions, after 3-15 days caterpillars are born from the eggs, bite under the epidermis of the leaf, young shoot or the skin of a young tuber, where they feed, gnawing through them winding mines and passages filled with excrement. On average, after 11-14 days of feeding, caterpillars leave mines, weave cocoons between dried leaves, in soil cracks, plant debris, between tubers in storage and other secluded places where they pupate. After 7-12 days, butterflies fly out of the pupae, lay eggs and give rise to the development of a new generation.
In the south of Russia, potato moth naturally develops in five generations, which overlap each other, so adults are observed almost continuously, from May to November, with the highest numbers in September-October.
Protective measures. Prevention of the introduction and spread of the pest in new areas, compliance with quarantine rules. Fumigation of potato tubers before planting. Destruction of nightshade weeds, hilling of bushes that do not allow the exposure of tubers, harvesting before drying the tops and immediate removal from the field, destruction of plant debris and deep plowing of the soil; if possible, rejection of summer planting of potatoes. In case of detection of summer butterflies and damage to plants, spraying with insecticides.
Pest Type: Bean Pest
Row: Coleoptera – Coleoptera
Family: Grains – Bruchidae
In Russia, it is distributed in the zone of growing beans with individual local foci. The main fodder plants of bean kernels are all types of beans: multiflorous, holly, plain, golden, etc .; in granaries can damage peas. Artificial settlement harms the offspring of fodder beans and soybeans.
The beetle is 2.8-3.5 mm in size, covered with grayish hairs on top, forming numerous dim spots, pronotum without denticles on the sides, somewhat bell-shaped, with one sharp tooth and 2-3 similar teeth behind them on the inner edge of the lower thighs of the hind legs. The egg is 0.5-0.7 mm in size, oval, sometimes slightly bent, white, matte. Larva about 4 mm, cylindrical, strongly curved, with long setae; younger larvae with three pairs of legs that disappear with the following centuries. The pupa is 3-4 mm, yellow-white.
They hibernate inside the grain in storages, in the field, in carrion, soil, under the remains of plants. Warehouses quickly breed in the summer and slowly in other periods, especially in winter. In warm rooms they breed throughout the year, developing in 5-6 generations, overlap each other. In the field, the bean kernel develops in one, in the south of Russia sometimes there is an optional second generation. In spring, beetles fly from wintering places to a distance of 3 km, feed on generative organs, pollen, petals, flowers of various leguminous plants. On beans, they appear at the beginning of the formation of beans, in mass, at the beginning of the ripening of beans. Beetles lay their eggs on bean leaves, in wrinkles, cracks or pits, gnawed by a female in the bean’s back seam, much less often from other sides. The egg-laying period reaches 12-18 days. The fertility of females is 50-60 eggs. Depending on the air temperature, the development of the embryo in the field lasts 6-11 days. Larvae immediately after exiting the egg bite into the bean, then into the grain. In the summer period, the full development of larvae is completed in 21 days, pupae in 8-10 days.
Bean kernel is a thermophilic species with clearly expressed needs for increased air humidity (75-90%). The lower temperature threshold of development is +14 ° С, the upper one is + 36.3 ° С, the optimum temperature is 18.7-30.3 ° С. The pest is very sensitive to low positive temperatures and especially to negative air temperatures. Beetles that are outside the bean grain, under the influence of temperatures of 0-2 ° C, die after 15 days, at 4 ° C – after 10, and at -12. -18 ° C-after 1-2 days. Negative temperature is a limiting factor in limiting the propagation of bean kernels in areas where such a regime in granaries is common in winter. In warehouses in the south of Ukraine, they are able to winter only in the beetle stage in relatively warm winters, when the negative temperature in the warehouses is a short-term phenomenon. In such cases, after hibernation, beetles can populate crops, as well as remain indoors, laying eggs on grain. A single grain can contain a significant number of larvae (up to 18 and even up to 30), destroying it almost completely. The whole cycle of the development of the grain occurs in the grain, the beetle’s exit through rounded holes. As the number of holes increases, grain similarity decreases dramatically. Beetles cause harm more often too early crops of beans; late crops show asynchrony in terms of departure of beetles and ripening of beans, so such crops are slightly damaged. beetles exit through rounded holes. As the number of holes increases, grain similarity decreases dramatically. Beetles cause harm more often too early crops of beans; late crops show asynchrony in terms of departure of beetles and ripening of beans, so such crops are slightly damaged. beetles exit through rounded holes. As the number of holes increases, grain similarity decreases dramatically. Beetles cause harm more often too early crops of beans; late crops show asynchrony in terms of departure of beetles and ripening of beans, so such crops are slightly damaged.
Protective measures. Sowing seeds free from bean kernels. Timely and lossless harvesting of bean beans to their cracking. Grain cooling according to instructions. Spraying crops with insecticides at the beginning of the formation of beans.
Pest Type: Fruit Pest
Row: Equine – Homoptera
Family: aphids – Aphididae
It is found everywhere. Damages the pear.
Female 2.6 mm wide, oval, dark brown; head, prothorax, antennae, tubes, and legs black. Wing parthenogenetic female 2.4 mm in size, head and chest black, shiny; the abdomen is dark brown with a black spot in the middle of the fourth to sixth tergites, antennae with 6 segments. The female stereoscope is 2.2 mm, the belly is brown-brown with black transverse stripes on the tergite. Amphigone female 1.4 mm long, oval, brown-brown; antennae with 5 segments, bright; brown tubes with a black top; brown tail. Male – 1.2 mm, abdominal body flat, narrowed to the apex. An egg 0.4-0.5 mm in size, first light yellow, after 3-4 days – black, shiny.
Fertilized eggs hibernate in cracks in the bark. Larvae regenerate at the beginning of budding. After 25-30 days, the larvae turn into parthenogenetic self-descendants, which in 13-15 days of life revive 50-80 larvae. Having completed development, the larvae turn into winged migrants, which fly to a parsnip or hogweed, where they additionally feed. The offspring of migrants – wingless parthenogenetic females – live in large colonies on the root neck and indigenous secondary hosts. In August-September, winged and wingless statenoscopes appear on parsnips or cow parsnip. The winged statenoscopes migrate to the pear, where 10-23 larvae regenerate, which, having completed development, turn into amphibole females. The wingless statenoscopes on secondary hosts revive the larvae, which eventually turn into winged males.
Damaged as a result of feeding aphids, leaves along the central vein with the lower surface inward, forming a semblance of a gala in which larvae live and feed. Leaves turn yellow or reddish. When feeding the larvae of the amphibole generation, rust spots form on the leaves. In the steppe regions, several types of aphids with a dioecious developmental cycle can also cause significant damage to pears: green pear umbrella aphid, pear cereal aphid.
Measures to protect fruit trees from aphids. Cutting of root shoots and fatty shoots, especially intensively populated by aphids. With a population of more than 10-20 eggs per 10 cm of shoots, it is necessary for the pest breeding centers in early spring, before buds open, at a temperature not lower than +4 ° С, spraying – washing of suicidal trees. If the population density of aphids exceeds 5 colonies per 100 sheets, insecticide treatment is required. The regulated ratio of aphids and aphidophagous is one aphidophagous per 30 pest larvae. With this ratio, the use of affidavits is impractical.
Pest Type: Potato Pest
The most numerous in woodland and forest-steppe. It damages potatoes, tomatoes, hops, rhubarb, corn, raspberries, wild strawberries, sugar beets, sorrel, onions, cabbage, sometimes barley, rye, and also feeds on weeds, especially iris, water sorrel.
Butterfly 28-40 mm in size, front wings from grayish-yellow to grayish-brown in color with a reddish tinge, transverse lines are brown, the round spot is the same color as the background of the wings, hind wings are grayish or reddish yellow with a dark stripe in the upper thirds of the wing. An egg of 0.7-0.8 mm in size, changing color, from yellowish-white to black-yellow. The caterpillar is 40-50 mm long, from light yellow to saturated black, a reddish stripe along the back, chest and anal scutes are brown, setae are located on brown scutes, spiracles are black. Pupa-17-25 mm, yellow-brown, cremaster two growths, club-shaped extensions at the ends and six bristles.
Eggs hibernate over the sheath of the leaves of perennial grasses, creeping wheatgrass, timothy grass, hedgehogs of the team, they are placed in groups, usually 20-60 eggs, in one or two rows. Caterpillars are born in May, feed first on the leaves, and then in the stalks of cereals, at the II-III age they turn into the stems of the plant. They have six, rarely five periods. Pupate in early July in the soil of damaged plants at a depth of 5-15 cm. The development of the pupa lasts 13-30 days. Butterflies fly from late July to mid-October, lay eggs behind leaves in groups of 20-60, sometimes up to 200 pieces. The fertility of the female is 260-480 eggs. One generation develops per year.
Protective measures. Destruction of weeds, removal of post-harvest residues. Spraying with insecticides in two periods: during the appearance of caterpillars on cereal grasses and during the transition from cereals to plant stems to their penetration into the stems.
Pest Type: Pest of perennial bean culture
Row: Coleoptera – Coleoptera
Family: Weevils – Curculionidae
Distributed in the steppe zone of Russia. Damages sainfoin.
Beetle 2.5 – 3.5 mm in size, elytra obovate, densely covered with dots, body with a matte sheen, the top is dark blue or dark green with very thin hairs.
Beetles hibernate under the remains or in a sainfoin outlet. They leave wintering in April, during the period of plant regrowth. They feed on young leaves. From late April – early May to June, females lays their eggs, gnawing a hole in the apical flower buds, stems, below the bud, as well as in the upper nodes of the branches and rods of young inflorescences. After 7 – 8 days, larvae are born, live 18 – 22 days. They pupate in the places of their development – in the cells. The pupal stage lasts 7-8 days. Beetles of a new generation begin to emerge from the first decade of June and are found in crops until September, eating young leaves.
Larvae cause significant damage by gnawing round cells in flower buds, stems, inflorescences, as a result of which they dry out.
Protective measures. Use crops no more than two years. Mow plants for forage during the budding phase – the beginning of flowering. Off-field cheating. With a population of over 20 copies. bugs for 10 strokes with a net to use insecticides (seed crops).
Latin name: Melolontha / Melolontha hippocastani
Russian name: Western May bug / Eastern May bug
Type of pest: Multi-pest, fruit and crop protection pest.
Row: Coleoptera – Coleoptera
Damage to forest and fruit crops.
Beetles 21 – 31 mm long, body elongated-oval, black or black-brown; elytra oval, with five narrow ribs; the front back is brown. Egg size 1.5 – 2 mm, spherical, white. Larva – up to 60 mm. Pupa with two processes on the apex of the abdomen.
Overwintering larvae and beetles in the soil. The beetle years begin in the last decade of April and lasts more than a month. The beginning of summer coincides with the beginning of the blooming of leaves on the trees. The mass exit of beetles is observed at a soil temperature of 9-14 ° C at a depth of 10 cm. They fly at dusk and at night, less often during the day. They damage the buds, leaves of trees and bushes. In some years, with low relative humidity during the summer, beetles feed on the ovaries of fruit crops – apple trees, plums, apricots. After mating, the females burrow into the soil to a depth of 10-15 cm and lay 20-30 eggs each. Fertility – 60 – 70 eggs.
After the last event, egg-laying bugs die without leaving the soil. After 25-30 days, larvae are born, which by the autumn feed on small roots and humus. In the spring-summer period, horizontal and vertical movements are carried out, concentrating in soil layers with a moisture content of 6 – 7% and a temperature of 17 – 20 ° C. In September, the larvae go 1 m deeper into the soil. This is due to the low cold resistance of the larvae. Their death begins at a temperature of -0.7 … -1 ° C. The development of larvae lasts 4 years. After each wintering, the larvae rise to the upper horizons of the soil, pass into the next century and continue feeding. After the third wintering in June – July, they molt once and burrow into an earthen cradle to a depth of 20–50 cm. The pupa develops for 30–40 days. The newly formed beetles remain in the earthen cradle until spring.
Four-year generation. In the far south, it could be for three years. Older larvae cause significant damage to the roots of trees and other crops. Seedlings and seedlings in nurseries and young plantings are especially severely affected by the damage.
The number of beetles sharply decreases in cold and low snowy winters due to the freezing of larvae. In wet years, the larvae die from a number of diseases (smallpox – Entomoxvirus melolonthae, dropsy – Morator lamelicorniarum, microsporidiosis – Nosema melolonthae, affecting the fatty body, green muscardine – Metarrhizium anisopliae, milk disease – Bacillus fibrogenesis, etc.).
Beetles are destroyed by a cuckoo, a goat’s duck, a rodent, a hoopoe, a rook, a jackdaw, a jay, a kestrel, a young mare, a magpie, a starling, a golden oriole, a rogue, bats, and other moles, badgers, and hedgehogs. Protective measures. Attracting insectivorous birds to forest stands. The laying of nurseries no closer than 200 – 300 m from the stands is the place where beetles are concentrated. In nurseries with a population of more than 5 larvae per 1 m2 – The introduction of granulated insecticides into the soil. Loosening of soil in nurseries at the beginning of a massive summer of beetles. In the summer years, the destruction of beetles on fodder plants by treatment with insecticides. On young landings – shaking beetles on bedding in the morning, followed by their destruction.
Pest Type: Currant and Gooseberry Pest
Row: Diptera – Diptera
Family: Gall midges – Cecidomyiidae
It is found throughout the country. Damages black currants.
The adult is 1.6-1.7 mm long, the abdomen is yellow-orange, and at the end of the abdomen there is a long pointed ovipositor; wings are glassy, covered with thin hairs. Egg 0.2-0.3 mm long, oblong, spindle-shaped. Larva – 2-3 mm, orange-black.
Larvae overwinter in cocoons in the soil. During the budding period, the currants pupate. At the beginning of the budding, adults emerge. Females lay eggs in blackcurrant buds. Larvae regenerate after 3-4 days, feed on the contents of the bud. Due to damage, the buds grow unnaturally, acquire orange-black colors and die. After feeding, which lasts 14-20 days, the larvae pass into the soil, forming a cocoon, remain in it until the spring of next year. One
generation develops per year.
The protective measures are the same as for the current gall midge. However, if the damage is exceeded by a threshold, only one spray with insecticides should be carried out during the period of bud swelling.
Pest Type: Pest of Strawberry and Raspberry
Row: Hymenoptera – Hymenoptera
Family: true sawflies – Tenthredinidae
It is found everywhere. Damages raspberries, blackberries, mountain ash.
The adult is 5–7 mm long, black, covered with sparse hairs, wings are dark, hind legs in the apical part are white, the last segment of the abdomen is somewhat elongated, covering the top of the ovipositor from above. Egg size 1-1.2 mm, white. Larva 10-12 mm long, body dark brown or white on top, head black or brown. Pupa – 8-9 mm, light yellow.
Eonymphs winter in a thin two-layer light brown cocoon in plant debris, sometimes in the soil at a depth of 5-7 cm. Pupate in April. Years of adults of the first generation begin at an average daily air temperature of 11-12 ° C and coincides with the phenophases of raspberry buds blooming. The female lays eggs one at a time in the leaf petioles, less often in the main veins. The laid eggs are clearly visible in small brown incisions. Fertility – 40-50 eggs. Larvae, resurrected after 5-7 days, are kept on the lower surface of the leaf. First, they skeletonize the leaf in the form of windows, then gnaw holes or gnaw the leaf from the edges. After 22-25 days, the larvae complete their feeding and pupate in cocoons. The development of the pupa is completed in 10-15 days, and the second generation takes place, which also develops on raspberry leaves. Two generations are developing over the year. In the southern regions, there is a third.
Predators and parasites play an important role in regulating the sawfly population.
Protective measures. Tillage between rows and under bushes. Destruction of plant debris. With the number of more than 10-12 false caterpillars per 100 sheets – the use of biological products or insecticides at the beginning of the revival of false caterpillars.