Many summer residents are ready to exert all their efforts in order to equip the life of their own “suburban hacienda”, to turn the local area into a blooming garden or “green lawn”. What tricks do gardeners have to resort to in order to turn the site into a real “fragrant oasis” ?! If the land on which the metropolis is located is not suitable for farming, there is a need to import soil from outside, fertilize the soil, and take care of it. The painstaking work will soon bear fruit – the lucky owners of suburban real estate get the opportunity to enjoy the views of green plantations grown by their own hands, to use fruit and vegetable crops collected from the beds for food.
Summer residents with experience, however, are well aware that all their efforts will be wasted if moles settle on the site. Not everyone understands why these cute animals are harmful to agar purposes, destroying not only worms but also a lot of harmful insects, small animals.
Fight Against Moles
For most owners of a country house, the fight against moles in the garden is the number one task, since they inflict tremendous damage to green spaces. Animals masterfully dig a network of tunnels running to a depth of 20 cm. At the same distance from the top edge of the soil is the root system of garden crops. It is clear that the vigorous activity of rodents leads to dire consequences for the garden – in a matter of days, the “flowering garden” can turn into a desert. The peak of the appearance of moles occurs in the summer period – at this time, plants need to actively grow, to be filled with strength. Shrew animals appear more than one at a time – if you notice one mole in the area, you can be sure that at least 10 units travel in tunnel tunnels.
In order for the destruction of moles in the garden plot to achieve the proper result, it is worth betting on the use of a set of measures. Practice shows that individually none of them can be considered effective. Ultrasonic repeller does not work on animals, poisonous compounds are also not able to remove “workaholic” from the developed territories. On the positive side, reusable mole traps, which are installed along the path of moves, have proved themselves. Strong traps reliably destroy animals moving through tunnels – it is precisely on them that professionals, attracted by the owners of suburban real estate, recommend betting on them in order to save the site from hated diggers.
The sliding shutter trap is inserted into the tunnels. It must be remembered that moles instantly react to pungent odors, possessing a powerful sense of smell. Covering the traps with turf, it is possible to distract moles from them – the turf smells the same as the soil. Comprehensive work on driving moles involves the use of a combination of methods – in order to permanently rid your area of 10 acres of animals, you must install at least 10 traps placed in the tunnels of the underground tunnel system.
The red spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) is a tiny insect that feeds on plant juices. Most often, their invasion is quite difficult to get rid of. The most suitable time for this may be autumn when they slightly increase in size and acquire a more orange color. But regardless of the time of year when you decide to get rid of these parasites, certain organic remedies are suitable for this. If a spider mite has appeared – the methods of struggle can be varied. From the first try, usually, a little helps.
What Does a Spider Mite Look like – Photo and Description
First, you need to detect insects. You need to know what a spider mite looks like – a photo will help you “recognize the enemy in person.” The red spider mite can be found both indoors and in the garden – they are not particularly picky about what plant to eat. Most houseplants are prone to be infected with a red spider mite, especially if they grow under stressful conditions such as hot, dry air or inadequate watering and top dressing. Signs that an infection has occurred include:
- on the leaves there are pale yellow, red or silver spots;
- upon closer inspection, very small white spots (red spider mite eggs), as well as the mites themselves, are visible on the underside of the leaves.
If you see shiny white membranes between the stems and leaves, then this is also a sign of infection with a tick, but, as a rule, its extreme stage.
If you cannot make out insects but suspect that they are on a plant, you can try to knock them on a piece of white paper. At the same time, be prepared that pests, once on paper, will immediately rush to the edge to be under it, because they will perceive it as a leaf of a plant.
Spider Mite – Measures to Combat Improvised Means
If you find that you have got a spider mite – control measures should be taken immediately. To do this, you can use the means at hand. Humidity increase. The red spider mite does not tolerate increased humidity, so spraying and abundant watering of plants is a good step to get rid of tick insects and prevent future infections.
Prepare a soap solution for processing or purchase a ready-made organic mixture in the store. Spray the treatment under the leaves and wipe the surfaces of the sheets.
Spray with insecticidal soap. This can harm plants (phytotoxicity), so you need to either know exactly which plants may react poorly, or do test irrigation on one or two leaves.
Further Combating the Spider Mite
In the future, the fight against the spider mite will be reduced to creating unfavorable living conditions for it. Remove all leaves that show signs of damage. These leaves should be destroyed so as not to contribute to the spread of ticks. If the plant is very infected, you should consider sacrificing it for the health of the rest of the garden.
If the plant is in the garden, you should once a week carry out abundant irrigation of the entire garden with a hose.
Be sure to promptly and in sufficient quantities feed the plants with fertilizers and water to give them strength for self-defense in the future.
Plant monitoring should be carried out regularly to prevent infection in the early stages.
Remember that ticks show preferences for certain types of plants – roses, lilies, quinces, apple trees, blueberries, boxwood, juniper, and all plants are grown indoors.
Tips – How to Get Rid of a Spider Mite
The red spider mite, as a rule, lives in tropical and temperate climatic zones and successfully survives in greenhouse premises. Therefore, our advice on how to get rid of spider mites will include some aspects of plant maintenance.
In your garden, you can plant predatory insects that will eat a spider mite. You should consult a gardening store about this. Please note that this pest control option is quite expensive.
Warning Before Fighting a Spider Mite
Now you understand how to deal with a spider mite. But this war can drag on for a long time. And all this time it is necessary to observe personal safety measures. All insecticides have a toxic effect. You can inadvertently poison or harm people around you. Therefore, be careful, and only in this case, the fight against the spider mite will be safe for you. The option of switching to more toxic solutions for processing can be justified only if organic means did not help. In especially difficult cases, we apply “Malathion” (karbofos).
Things you need: insecticidal soap, disposable gloves, sprayer, appropriate fertilizers for plants.
Pest Type: Bean Pest
Row: Lepidoptera – Lepidoptera
Family: Scoops – Noctuidae
Distributed everywhere. It damages peas, clover, alfalfa, lupine and other legumes, sugar beets, flax, onions, corn, potatoes, a lot of fields, garden, vegetable crops, as well as weeds.
Butterfly with a wingspan of 36-42 mm; fore wings black-brown with yellowish transverse lines; round and kidney-shaped spots are gray-brown, between them a blackish triangle. 0.75 mm egg, light yellow.
The caterpillar is 29-43 mm long, green with a black velvet back, two yellow spine-like stripes. Pupa-18-19 mm, dark brown. A pupa hibernates in a cocoon in the soil. Butterfly release begins in May. The departure period is long and is observed until mid-September.
Additionally, feed on flowering plants. The female lays eggs on the underside of the leaves in regular rows in one layer, in groups of 50 to 400 pieces in each clutch. After 8-10 days, caterpillars revive, which damages the leaves within a month. First-generation caterpillars complete development in July and migrate to pupation soil. Butterflies of the second generation fly in August-September. In the same months, the development of second-generation caterpillars occurs, which subsequently form a cocoon in the soil, pupate and remain in it until spring. Two generations are developing over the year.
Peas can be damaged: Agrotiscorticea Schiff., Which hibernates in the caterpillar stage of the II-IV centuries and develops in one generation; DiscestradianthiTausch-winters in the pupal or caterpillar stages of the last age and can produce 2-3 generations per year.
The number of scoops is reduced by some parasites. The eggs are infected with a Trichogramma. Several dozens of horsemen and mukhtahin parasitize on the tracks. Often there are braconids, chalcid, eulogies, tahini.
Protective measures. The number of pests is reduced by such agrotechnical measures as autumn plowing, cultivation, and destruction of weeds. Twice issue of Trichogramma against each generation at the beginning of the departure of butterflies and laying of eggs – 40-50 thousand per 1 ha. At the beginning of the revival of caterpillars, the use of biological products. Against caterpillars when exceeding the economic threshold of harmfulness, spraying with insecticides.
Pest Type: Fruit Pest
Row: Lepidoptera – Lepidoptera
Family: Ermine Moths – Yponomeutidae
It is found everywhere. It damages plums, cherry plums, apricots, cherries, cherries, thorns, mountain ash, and less commonly an apple tree.
Butterfly with a wingspan of 18-22 mm, front wings are white with 16-19 black dots located in three irregular rows; hind wings are gray. Egg 0.3 mm in size, yellowish, roundish. Caterpillar 14-16 mm long, yellow-gray; head, legs are black. Pupa – 8-11 mm, dark yellow; head, primordial wings, and cremaster are black. The cocoon is thin, white.
Caterpillars of the first age overwinter under the shield. At the end of April, they emerge from under the guards and immediately weave spider web nests, connecting leaves in pairs. Develop over 35-45 days, passing five centuries. Pellet in spider webs separately from each other. After 8-10 days, in late May-early June butterflies leave. Years last until mid-August. 14-16 days after the release of the butterfly mates, after which they begin to lay eggs on the 5-6 day. The female lays 15-40 eggs on smooth bark of thin branches and fills them with mucus, which quickly freezes in the air.
Fertility – 80-100 eggs. After 8-15 days, the caterpillars revive, fall into diapause and remain under a moisture-proof shield until the spring of next year. In spring, the caterpillars damage the leaves and braid the branches with a thick web. In the case of significant damage, the quantity and quality of the crop decreases, the growth of shoots decreases, the process of laying fruit buds is disrupted. The number of fruit ermine moths is reduced by adverse weather conditions for the pest and a significant number of entomophagous indicated for the apple ermine moth.
The protective measures are the same as for the apple ermine moth.
Spring cabbage fly is a pest of garden crops belonging to the cruciferous family. This insect is very difficult to remove from its site. You can only take control measures that protect plants from its effects.
In color and size, it resembles a housefly. Departure from the soil, according to the observations of some vegetable growers, coincides with the flowering of birch, and the laying of eggs with a flowering cherry.
CABBAGE FLY LARVAE
Eggs are laid in cracks in the soil near the stems of plants. Hatching larvae of the cabbage fly immediately penetrate into still immature stems or root crops. They gnaw passages in the stalks of cabbage and in the roots of radishes, turnips, radishes, daikons. Plants are greatly weakened, they bind in sunny weather, root crops lose their market value. In the photo, the cabbage fly is at the stage of the larva and adult.
The larvae that have gained mass pupate near the plants damaged by them. At the beginning of July the flies of a new generation appear (2nd generation).
They are less harmful since the tissues of cultivated plants at the level of the upper soil layer and the ground layer of air become “rougher”, that is, difficult to access for new generation larvae. Therefore, relatively speaking, summer flies will cause great damage only to newly emerging shoots of cruciferous weeds.
CABBAGE FLY CONTROL MEASURES
Protective measures include planting healthy, strong seedlings in the early stages (preferably in peat pots) in order to “overtake” the phenophases of the development of spring flies.
After planting, no later than the first three days, it is necessary to conduct a deterrent dusting with tobacco (shag) dust with slaked lime or ash (1: 1), or with naphthalene, or with camphor. They try to apply the mixture as close to the stem as possible, because of which the fly will not lay eggs next to it. After 6-7 days, the reception should be repeated. These are the available measures to control the cabbage fly.
The eggs of the cabbage fly are white, clearly visible, and they can simply be removed from the stem. In the future, released larvae will die from exhaustion.
Loosening the soil, especially after rain and watering, improves the living conditions of plants. Hilling, especially after watering and top dressing, will contribute to the formation of additional roots, thereby increasing the resistance of plants to damage.
The eggs of larvae and pupae are eaten by Staphylinidae and their larvae. They are black, elongated (10-12 mm); beetles have short wings.
Eggs of a cabbage fly are damaged by red ticks (they are visible on the surface of the soil), which suck out the contents of the eggs.
The control of cruciferous weeds in their area and adjacent territories throughout the summer season will contribute to the fact that the clutch of eggs of summer cabbage flies will be “ineffective”, and practically no spring cabbage flies will be observed next spring.
Pest insects can destroy your garden. If you enjoy gardening while being concerned about the environment and your own health, then pest control should focus on natural or organic pesticides, that is, instead of products that contain chemicals and toxins. There are many ways to protect against pests that can scare away insects from plants in your garden without polluting the ground or harming your health. Organic pesticides and repellents can be used to treat the site.
Identify which types of insects harm your garden and which are beneficial to it. For example, bees and ladybugs are important components of the garden ecosystem, as they pollinate flowers and exterminate some types of pests.
Hang a bird feeder and a bath of water in the garden. Birds are a natural remedy for pests. Their presence on the site will save you from many harmful insects. To attract birds, they also use sunflower planting. At the same time, planting them along the borders of your garden as a fence, you can also protect your beds from wild animals.
Pull the net over the garden plants. Lightweight mesh is good pest protection for your trees and flowers without the use of traditional pesticides with harmful chemicals. Find a grid that is transparent enough to let sunlight pass through to the plants. You can find the right material at home and garden stores.
Remove pests manually. Your hands will serve as a biological pesticide – collect slugs, snails, and beetles. When collecting insects by hand, put them in a plate or basin filled with a soapy water solution – this contributes to their death. Use a stick to knock down beetles from tree branches that cannot be reached from the ground.
Make your own organic pesticide. Here, pest control in the garden comes down to preparing aggressive solutions for insects – make a mixture of machine oil and water and fill it with a spray bottle. Spray this solution in the garden and over the beds to deter pests.
Use factory-produced organic pesticides. Now in any large and not so big city, you can find a number of shops with garden products that sell suitable substances that will help in pest control. Be sure to read the composition. Make sure that the product does not contain chemicals and elements that you are not sure about.
Follow the directions on the label. Most organic pesticides are supposed to be sprayed directly on the beds, leaves, crown of trees, flowers. Try diatomaceous pest repellents, which are powders made from marine animal fossils. When using such funds, insects die from dehydration.
Use products containing garlic. Garlic is a natural insecticide and fungicide and best protects fruit trees and beds.
Consult and share experiences with other gardeners who use organic pesticides or other environmentally friendly methods to repel and kill pests. A lot of materials can also be found on the Internet.
Pest Type: Cereal Pest
Row: Coleoptera – Coleoptera
Family: Banded – Scarabaeidae
The greatest harm is done to the southern forest-steppe and steppes of Russia. The beetle eats cereal grains during milk ripeness and knocks hard grains to the ground. It especially damages wheat, rye, barley, feeds on wild cereal grains. Larvae damage the roots of rye, wheat, corn, beets, sunflowers, potatoes, tobacco, fruit seedlings in nurseries.
The beetle is 12.8 – 16 mm long, the body is bluish-blue with a metallic luster; head and shield with a green shine; has antennae; elytra dark chestnut with a black square spot at the scutellum.
Larva up to 35 mm in size, White, with a brown-yellow head, antennae, and legs.
The bugs’ years last from the end of May to the beginning of August, but in some years these periods can fluctuate within two weeks of massive years – from June 11 to July 17. Beetles are active on hot sunny days, they fly, sit on ears and eat. Two weeks after the release, the laying of eggs begins, for which the female digs into the ground to a depth of 10 – 15 cm and lays eggs in small heaps, 2 to 3 doses of 30 to 40 pieces. Three weeks later, larvae emerge from the eggs, they feed on hummus and small roots of various plants, including cultivated ones, older larvae – mainly roots.
Wintering: in the fall they go into the soil to a depth of 30 – 80 cm, and in the spring they rise again to the surface. During the summer, molt twice.
Pupation takes place in soil soils at a depth of 10 – 15 cm. About two weeks are in the pupal stage, after which adults come out. In connection with the two-year development cycle, the summer years are observed in a year. The number of beetle bugs is reduced by nematodes, fungal and bacterial diseases, on the larvae tahina parasitizes.
Protective measures. Inter-row tillage of cultivated crops and steam fields by 10 – 12 cm (late May-early June) to destroy larvae and pupae. Processing of edge bands of cereal crops during the period of grain filling with insecticides in the presence of 3 – 5 beetles per 1 m 2.
Pest Type: Potato Pest
Quarantine pests in the southern steppes of Russia. It damages potatoes, especially tubers in storage, tobacco, eggplant, tomatoes, Datura, nightshade and other cultivated and weedy nightshade. Butterfly 12-16 mm in size, fore wings broadly lanceolate, brownish-gray, with a dark inner edge, yellow scales and dark brown strokes; hind wings with a notch along the outer edge, the fringe is longer than the width of the wing; in males on the front edge there is a long hairbrush, reaching the middle of the wing.
The egg is 0.8 mm in size, oval, pearly white. Caterpillar 8-10 mm long, yellow-orange or gray-green with a longitudinal stripe in the middle of the back and small dark shields on the body; thoracic flap black, anal yellow. The pupa is 5-6.5 mm, brown, with a small cremaster and setae at the end of the abdomen, located in a silky silver-gray cocoon.
Caterpillars of older ages and pupae in cocoons overwinter in natural conditions. In potato storages at 15 ° C and above, pest development continues on potato tubers in the winter. In the spring, in case of planting tubers with eggs laid on them or populated by caterpillars or pupae, the pest again enters the field.
Butterflies fly to the south of Russia in May. Butterflies fly at night, from sunset to sunrise, and 1-2 hours after sunrise. A day after mating, the females lay their eggs, placing them below on the leaves, on the stems, soil, naked potato tubers one by one or in small heaps. For 2-16 days, one female is able to lay up to 300 eggs.
Depending on the temperature conditions, after 3-15 days caterpillars are born from the eggs, bite under the epidermis of the leaf, young shoot or the skin of a young tuber, where they feed, gnawing through them winding mines and passages filled with excrement. On average, after 11-14 days of feeding, caterpillars leave mines, weave cocoons between dried leaves, in soil cracks, plant debris, between tubers in storage and other secluded places where they pupate. After 7-12 days, butterflies fly out of the pupae, lay eggs and give rise to the development of a new generation.
In the south of Russia, potato moth naturally develops in five generations, which overlap each other, so adults are observed almost continuously, from May to November, with the highest numbers in September-October.
Protective measures. Prevention of the introduction and spread of the pest in new areas, compliance with quarantine rules. Fumigation of potato tubers before planting. Destruction of nightshade weeds, hilling of bushes that do not allow the exposure of tubers, harvesting before drying the tops and immediate removal from the field, destruction of plant debris and deep plowing of the soil; if possible, rejection of summer planting of potatoes. In case of detection of summer butterflies and damage to plants, spraying with insecticides.
Scabies on plants are pests that affect planting in the open ground and quickly spreading to nearby plantings and parasitizing, including on fruits and vegetables. Their name comes from the characteristic hard shells of green or brown. These insects feed on plant juices and secrete a sticky liquid, nectar – in the end, as a result of their vital activity, the plant dies. If you notice a scale insect or their nectar on your landings, then there are certain methods of combating the scale insect that can save your garden.
Scale Shield Found – How to Fight on Your Own?
If you do not know how to deal with scale insects, read some tips from experienced gardeners. Infected branches (processes) should be cut off and destroyed by incineration or treatment with insecticides in order to prevent the spread of infection.
Useful of beneficial predatory insects, such as wasp parasites or ladybugs, are possible.
Release predators directly into the beds or into the garden. After they eat all the insects, they will leave themselves.
A more effective fight against scale with the help of chemicals. At home, you can use ordinary household soap. Plants can be treated with a mild soapy solution. To prepare such a solution, mix 2 tsp. liquid soap and 3.5 liters of water.
The resulting mixture is poured into a spray bottle and the stems and sheets on both sides are thoroughly sprayed.
After a while (about half an hour), rinse the solution from the leaves and stems with a stream of water at room temperature.
Processing can also be carried out using horticultural oils such as neem oil. These oils are safe for other insects and plants.
Parasites can be scraped off the plants with a soft brush and soap or using the above spray mixtures.
Processing with factory chemicals and insecticides in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions is also effective.
Tips – How to Get Rid of Scale Insects
In order to protect sensitive flowers and plants, fruits and vegetables, and especially pets, before you get rid of scale insects, first try the least toxic methods of killing pests, and only then chemicals and insecticides.
Make sure that all plants, even those that cannot be processed, have been thoroughly watered before you start processing or planting predatory insects.
When using the soap mixture described above, make sure that you do not use it more than once a week.
When using liquid soap, make sure that it is mild in acidity, otherwise, it can harm delicate plants.
Warning Before Destroying the Shield
Before you destroy the shield take care of your own safety. If you decide to use chemical sprays, care must be taken to protect yourself with covered clothing and protective equipment such as gloves, goggles and a mask (or respirator).
When using any chemicals or insecticides, be sure to read the label – it is very important for your health and the environment.
After applying any chemicals or pesticides, make sure you thoroughly wash all exposed skin with soap and water. Clothes are best cleaned and dried outside the home, such as in a garage.
Pest Type: Bean Pest
Row: Coleoptera – Coleoptera
Family: Grains – Bruchidae
In Russia, it is distributed in the zone of growing beans with individual local foci. The main fodder plants of bean kernels are all types of beans: multiflorous, holly, plain, golden, etc .; in granaries can damage peas. Artificial settlement harms the offspring of fodder beans and soybeans.
The beetle is 2.8-3.5 mm in size, covered with grayish hairs on top, forming numerous dim spots, pronotum without denticles on the sides, somewhat bell-shaped, with one sharp tooth and 2-3 similar teeth behind them on the inner edge of the lower thighs of the hind legs. The egg is 0.5-0.7 mm in size, oval, sometimes slightly bent, white, matte. Larva about 4 mm, cylindrical, strongly curved, with long setae; younger larvae with three pairs of legs that disappear with the following centuries. The pupa is 3-4 mm, yellow-white.
They hibernate inside the grain in storages, in the field, in carrion, soil, under the remains of plants. Warehouses quickly breed in the summer and slowly in other periods, especially in winter. In warm rooms they breed throughout the year, developing in 5-6 generations, overlap each other. In the field, the bean kernel develops in one, in the south of Russia sometimes there is an optional second generation. In spring, beetles fly from wintering places to a distance of 3 km, feed on generative organs, pollen, petals, flowers of various leguminous plants. On beans, they appear at the beginning of the formation of beans, in mass, at the beginning of the ripening of beans. Beetles lay their eggs on bean leaves, in wrinkles, cracks or pits, gnawed by a female in the bean’s back seam, much less often from other sides. The egg-laying period reaches 12-18 days. The fertility of females is 50-60 eggs. Depending on the air temperature, the development of the embryo in the field lasts 6-11 days. Larvae immediately after exiting the egg bite into the bean, then into the grain. In the summer period, the full development of larvae is completed in 21 days, pupae in 8-10 days.
Bean kernel is a thermophilic species with clearly expressed needs for increased air humidity (75-90%). The lower temperature threshold of development is +14 ° С, the upper one is + 36.3 ° С, the optimum temperature is 18.7-30.3 ° С. The pest is very sensitive to low positive temperatures and especially to negative air temperatures. Beetles that are outside the bean grain, under the influence of temperatures of 0-2 ° C, die after 15 days, at 4 ° C – after 10, and at -12. -18 ° C-after 1-2 days. Negative temperature is a limiting factor in limiting the propagation of bean kernels in areas where such a regime in granaries is common in winter. In warehouses in the south of Ukraine, they are able to winter only in the beetle stage in relatively warm winters, when the negative temperature in the warehouses is a short-term phenomenon. In such cases, after hibernation, beetles can populate crops, as well as remain indoors, laying eggs on grain. A single grain can contain a significant number of larvae (up to 18 and even up to 30), destroying it almost completely. The whole cycle of the development of the grain occurs in the grain, the beetle’s exit through rounded holes. As the number of holes increases, grain similarity decreases dramatically. Beetles cause harm more often too early crops of beans; late crops show asynchrony in terms of departure of beetles and ripening of beans, so such crops are slightly damaged. beetles exit through rounded holes. As the number of holes increases, grain similarity decreases dramatically. Beetles cause harm more often too early crops of beans; late crops show asynchrony in terms of departure of beetles and ripening of beans, so such crops are slightly damaged. beetles exit through rounded holes. As the number of holes increases, grain similarity decreases dramatically. Beetles cause harm more often too early crops of beans; late crops show asynchrony in terms of departure of beetles and ripening of beans, so such crops are slightly damaged.
Protective measures. Sowing seeds free from bean kernels. Timely and lossless harvesting of bean beans to their cracking. Grain cooling according to instructions. Spraying crops with insecticides at the beginning of the formation of beans.
Pest Type: Fruit Pest
Row: Equine – Homoptera
Family: aphids – Aphididae
It is found everywhere. Damages the pear.
Female 2.6 mm wide, oval, dark brown; head, prothorax, antennae, tubes, and legs black. Wing parthenogenetic female 2.4 mm in size, head and chest black, shiny; the abdomen is dark brown with a black spot in the middle of the fourth to sixth tergites, antennae with 6 segments. The female stereoscope is 2.2 mm, the belly is brown-brown with black transverse stripes on the tergite. Amphigone female 1.4 mm long, oval, brown-brown; antennae with 5 segments, bright; brown tubes with a black top; brown tail. Male – 1.2 mm, abdominal body flat, narrowed to the apex. An egg 0.4-0.5 mm in size, first light yellow, after 3-4 days – black, shiny.
Fertilized eggs hibernate in cracks in the bark. Larvae regenerate at the beginning of budding. After 25-30 days, the larvae turn into parthenogenetic self-descendants, which in 13-15 days of life revive 50-80 larvae. Having completed development, the larvae turn into winged migrants, which fly to a parsnip or hogweed, where they additionally feed. The offspring of migrants – wingless parthenogenetic females – live in large colonies on the root neck and indigenous secondary hosts. In August-September, winged and wingless statenoscopes appear on parsnips or cow parsnip. The winged statenoscopes migrate to the pear, where 10-23 larvae regenerate, which, having completed development, turn into amphibole females. The wingless statenoscopes on secondary hosts revive the larvae, which eventually turn into winged males.
Damaged as a result of feeding aphids, leaves along the central vein with the lower surface inward, forming a semblance of a gala in which larvae live and feed. Leaves turn yellow or reddish. When feeding the larvae of the amphibole generation, rust spots form on the leaves. In the steppe regions, several types of aphids with a dioecious developmental cycle can also cause significant damage to pears: green pear umbrella aphid, pear cereal aphid.
Measures to protect fruit trees from aphids. Cutting of root shoots and fatty shoots, especially intensively populated by aphids. With a population of more than 10-20 eggs per 10 cm of shoots, it is necessary for the pest breeding centers in early spring, before buds open, at a temperature not lower than +4 ° С, spraying – washing of suicidal trees. If the population density of aphids exceeds 5 colonies per 100 sheets, insecticide treatment is required. The regulated ratio of aphids and aphidophagous is one aphidophagous per 30 pest larvae. With this ratio, the use of affidavits is impractical.
Pest Type: Potato Pest
The most numerous in woodland and forest-steppe. It damages potatoes, tomatoes, hops, rhubarb, corn, raspberries, wild strawberries, sugar beets, sorrel, onions, cabbage, sometimes barley, rye, and also feeds on weeds, especially iris, water sorrel.
Butterfly 28-40 mm in size, front wings from grayish-yellow to grayish-brown in color with a reddish tinge, transverse lines are brown, the round spot is the same color as the background of the wings, hind wings are grayish or reddish yellow with a dark stripe in the upper thirds of the wing. An egg of 0.7-0.8 mm in size, changing color, from yellowish-white to black-yellow. The caterpillar is 40-50 mm long, from light yellow to saturated black, a reddish stripe along the back, chest and anal scutes are brown, setae are located on brown scutes, spiracles are black. Pupa-17-25 mm, yellow-brown, cremaster two growths, club-shaped extensions at the ends and six bristles.
Eggs hibernate over the sheath of the leaves of perennial grasses, creeping wheatgrass, timothy grass, hedgehogs of the team, they are placed in groups, usually 20-60 eggs, in one or two rows. Caterpillars are born in May, feed first on the leaves, and then in the stalks of cereals, at the II-III age they turn into the stems of the plant. They have six, rarely five periods. Pupate in early July in the soil of damaged plants at a depth of 5-15 cm. The development of the pupa lasts 13-30 days. Butterflies fly from late July to mid-October, lay eggs behind leaves in groups of 20-60, sometimes up to 200 pieces. The fertility of the female is 260-480 eggs. One generation develops per year.
Protective measures. Destruction of weeds, removal of post-harvest residues. Spraying with insecticides in two periods: during the appearance of caterpillars on cereal grasses and during the transition from cereals to plant stems to their penetration into the stems.
The presence of millipedes in the garden is usually helpful. However, if their amount exceeds a certain norm, they can turn their appetites to shoots of cultivated plants and soft fruits and berries, such as strawberries, instead of eating rotting plants. Here we describe an easy way to capture and move millipede pests to less vulnerable parts of the garden. To get started, decide on what place your millipede pests live in.
Effective Fight Against Millipedes
A safe and effective fight against millipedes is possible only by mechanical methods. Choose a place for your “trap”. Ideally, it should be located near fruit and vegetable stands that you intend to protect from millipedes, such as strawberry beds.
Make a small wire cage that can be dug into the ground.
Put a few slices of potatoes and carrots inside. It should be buried at some distance from the protected beds.
Check the cage regularly. Quite often it will be necessary to free the trap from animals since so many individuals will fall into it, attracted by food.
Remove the trap when the shoots are large enough to cope with the pests themselves, or when the berries are already harvested.
Tip – Look at the Millipedes
We recommend that you look at the photo of millipedes. These insects are often confused with more dangerous pests, which should be destroyed by chemical means. Millipedes are beneficial insects if their population does not exceed the ecological level. We advise you not to kill millipedes, but take them to a remote part of the garden. They are an important part of the ecosystem, as they consume rotting plant materials and wood and process it into fertile soil.
Things you need:
- small wire cells (how much depends on the size of the protected area and the number of millipedes);
- slices of carrots and potatoes.
Pest Type: Pest of perennial bean culture
Row: Coleoptera – Coleoptera
Family: Weevils – Curculionidae
Distributed in the steppe zone of Russia. Damages sainfoin.
Beetle 2.5 – 3.5 mm in size, elytra obovate, densely covered with dots, body with a matte sheen, the top is dark blue or dark green with very thin hairs.
Beetles hibernate under the remains or in a sainfoin outlet. They leave wintering in April, during the period of plant regrowth. They feed on young leaves. From late April – early May to June, females lays their eggs, gnawing a hole in the apical flower buds, stems, below the bud, as well as in the upper nodes of the branches and rods of young inflorescences. After 7 – 8 days, larvae are born, live 18 – 22 days. They pupate in the places of their development – in the cells. The pupal stage lasts 7-8 days. Beetles of a new generation begin to emerge from the first decade of June and are found in crops until September, eating young leaves.
Larvae cause significant damage by gnawing round cells in flower buds, stems, inflorescences, as a result of which they dry out.
Protective measures. Use crops no more than two years. Mow plants for forage during the budding phase – the beginning of flowering. Off-field cheating. With a population of over 20 copies. bugs for 10 strokes with a net to use insecticides (seed crops).
Pesticides usually have a pungent unpleasant odor, and are generally dangerous to humans, as they decompose poorly in the natural environment, penetrate soil and water and poison them. We offer you a relatively mild gentle way to get rid of ants with biodegradable substances.
The manufacture of an annihilating or deterring ant control agent from common substances used in the household. Here is a list of useful substances and items:
- a piece of chalk;
- lemon juice;
- Cayenne pepper;
- 50% aqueous solution of acetic acid;
- water-based puree of orange peels;
- petroleum jelly;
- duct tape;
- corn flour;
- boiling water;
- vinegar slaked soda;
- nicotine water, which is prepared by leaving pipe tobacco soaked in water overnight and then filtering it.
Ways to Use Anti-Ant Agents
Spray ants with vinegar. Having a low pH, it will destroy ants and will not harm most types of furniture. This is a great way to clean indoor surfaces that guests have indicated.
Feed the ants with cornmeal. They will be happy to pick her up and take her to the anthill, where the colony will feed on her. But, since the ant organism does not digest this type of product, this will lead to the death of insects. At the same time, cornmeal does not harm animals. Similarly, wheat flour and dried ground rice work.
Arm yourself with duct tape. When you want to beat out from the ants in the apartment, lure them with food smells to the surface of the duct tape. They will stick to her.
Detect the anthill and destroy. It may take some time for you to observe the ants, but they will invariably lead you to the root of all problems – and you can destroy the anthill directly. A good way to do this is to pour nicotine water or boiling water directly on it. You can use an alternative method – with the help of a suitable wand or any other object, you need to destroy the top of the anthill so that it looks like a crater. It is necessary to fill it with baking soda up to half and pour it with vinegar – this will destroy the colony with a 100% guarantee. The destroyed anthill can not be removed from the site, it will gradually disintegrate and disappear, but if you want to speed up this process, put sod with grass on top of the skeleton. In case you do not like to cause harm to ants, insects do not like citrus fruits and therefore, most likely, they will have to find a new home.
Press ants with your fingers. Yes, this is also an effective method to get rid of unwanted inhabitants of the house or garden. However, always remember to wash your hands after a “bloody massacre.”
Preventive Ant House Control Techniques
Try to control those places in the house that can serve as a place for ants to penetrate. Mostly such places are cracks, holes, windows, and openings for pets. It is here that it is appropriate to apply preventive measures against insects.
Sprinkle salt on flat surfaces. This is a great way to scare away ants from window sills and get rid of their presence.
As another way to combatants, apply barriers with chalk. Draw lines on the walls and doorposts. Ants do not like the calcium carbonate of which chalk is composed, and therefore try to avoid it.
Pour lemon juice over the outer door sills. From this, the rapids will become a little sticky, but then the ants will be scared away by the pungent smell of citrus.
In places inaccessible to animals, you can sprinkle cayenne pepper. This tool is suitable for processing cracks and crevices.
Spray vinegar on large surfaces. This will be advisable in places where too many powdered substances are needed for processing.
Spread orange peels around the base of the house. Again – the smell of citrus scares ants away.
Along the edges, smear various objects with petroleum jelly. This will prevent ants from climbing into your pet’s bowls.
The best method of fighting ants is to keep clean. Wash countertops in the kitchen more often and do not leave crumbs anywhere.
If you do not accept the extermination of ants, we advise you to hang an open jar of honey on a tree in the garden in early summer – they will be happy to forget about your kitchen.
Some of the methods described above may be prohibited by local law. Be careful.
Nicotine is extremely toxic, it can be absorbed through the skin into the bloodstream. In high concentrations, its effects can be fatal! Always use rubber gloves when handling this substance. Pregnant women are highly discouraged from contacting nicotine.
Be prepared for the ants to return. You will have to repeat these operations more than once.
Remember: ants are an important link in the natural balance. Do not exterminate ants around the house, but only in it.
Latin name: Melolontha / Melolontha hippocastani
Russian name: Western May bug / Eastern May bug
Type of pest: Multi-pest, fruit and crop protection pest.
Row: Coleoptera – Coleoptera
Damage to forest and fruit crops.
Beetles 21 – 31 mm long, body elongated-oval, black or black-brown; elytra oval, with five narrow ribs; the front back is brown. Egg size 1.5 – 2 mm, spherical, white. Larva – up to 60 mm. Pupa with two processes on the apex of the abdomen.
Overwintering larvae and beetles in the soil. The beetle years begin in the last decade of April and lasts more than a month. The beginning of summer coincides with the beginning of the blooming of leaves on the trees. The mass exit of beetles is observed at a soil temperature of 9-14 ° C at a depth of 10 cm. They fly at dusk and at night, less often during the day. They damage the buds, leaves of trees and bushes. In some years, with low relative humidity during the summer, beetles feed on the ovaries of fruit crops – apple trees, plums, apricots. After mating, the females burrow into the soil to a depth of 10-15 cm and lay 20-30 eggs each. Fertility – 60 – 70 eggs.
After the last event, egg-laying bugs die without leaving the soil. After 25-30 days, larvae are born, which by the autumn feed on small roots and humus. In the spring-summer period, horizontal and vertical movements are carried out, concentrating in soil layers with a moisture content of 6 – 7% and a temperature of 17 – 20 ° C. In September, the larvae go 1 m deeper into the soil. This is due to the low cold resistance of the larvae. Their death begins at a temperature of -0.7 … -1 ° C. The development of larvae lasts 4 years. After each wintering, the larvae rise to the upper horizons of the soil, pass into the next century and continue feeding. After the third wintering in June – July, they molt once and burrow into an earthen cradle to a depth of 20–50 cm. The pupa develops for 30–40 days. The newly formed beetles remain in the earthen cradle until spring.
Four-year generation. In the far south, it could be for three years. Older larvae cause significant damage to the roots of trees and other crops. Seedlings and seedlings in nurseries and young plantings are especially severely affected by the damage.
The number of beetles sharply decreases in cold and low snowy winters due to the freezing of larvae. In wet years, the larvae die from a number of diseases (smallpox – Entomoxvirus melolonthae, dropsy – Morator lamelicorniarum, microsporidiosis – Nosema melolonthae, affecting the fatty body, green muscardine – Metarrhizium anisopliae, milk disease – Bacillus fibrogenesis, etc.).
Beetles are destroyed by a cuckoo, a goat’s duck, a rodent, a hoopoe, a rook, a jackdaw, a jay, a kestrel, a young mare, a magpie, a starling, a golden oriole, a rogue, bats, and other moles, badgers, and hedgehogs. Protective measures. Attracting insectivorous birds to forest stands. The laying of nurseries no closer than 200 – 300 m from the stands is the place where beetles are concentrated. In nurseries with a population of more than 5 larvae per 1 m2 – The introduction of granulated insecticides into the soil. Loosening of soil in nurseries at the beginning of a massive summer of beetles. In the summer years, the destruction of beetles on fodder plants by treatment with insecticides. On young landings – shaking beetles on bedding in the morning, followed by their destruction.
If you like to plant domestic plants, then you should certainly learn how to deal with mealybug. Powdery mealybug is an insect that feeds on the sap of the plant and which can cause serious damage in a short time. The product of his life is nectar, which attracts ants and promotes the propagation of mushrooms, called black mold. This type of insect is common throughout the globe. That is why controlling their numbers is an important step in maintaining the health of your home greenhouse. Infection with a worm can occur spontaneously, and population growth can occur exponentially, as a result of which damage can be very serious, up to the death of the plant.
The fight against the mealybug begins beyond the threshold of your home. Carefully check all new flowers for a mealybug before bringing them to your home.
How to Deal with Mealybug?
Be sure to monitor the soil of your existing species for excessive fertilizer. These insects are especially prone to breed in a land rich in nitrogen – so feed flowers only as needed. Before fighting a mealybug, prepare all the necessary tools and chemical solutions. Perform all operations with rubber gloves.
If it is found, remove the worms from the stems and sheets with a rag or paper towel. At the same time, they must be crushed. Rinse thoroughly. If you use paper towels, you should put them in a garbage bag and immediately throw them away.
After that, do not forget to check the plant for bags of worm eggs. These bags look like cotton balls adhering to sheets.
Touching a mealybug with a cotton ball soaked in alcohol will kill the insect.
To prevent the appearance of pests, you need to regularly wash the plant with a delicate detergent.
Spray oil or soap spray on leaves and stems. Such aerosols will destroy the colony by drying it or depriving it of air. However, this method is quite complicated due to the fact that bags of eggs can hide under the leaves and in other hard-to-reach places.
To obtain an immediate result, it is also possible to carry out processing with factory pesticides. However, such aerosols are only a short-term solution to the destruction of insect colonies and are not as effective as the only means of protection.
In case of severe damage to the plant with mealybug, it should be discarded. Sometimes there are situations when it is almost impossible to get rid of an overgrown colony of pests.
Tips – How to Get Rid of Mealybug
Infection with mealybugs most often occurs when a new plant brought into the house is affected. Before you buy any instance, make sure that it does not have insects and their eggs. Before you get rid of the mealybug, make sure that this is the insect you are going to take action against. A photo of a mealybug will help you recognize the pest.
When buying plants, it will not be out of place to quarantine a beginner for several days. At the same time, the appearance of worms should be observed. Even if during the purchase you do not notice insects or eggs on the foliage and the stem, then they may well be in the package or filler.
When using pesticides of the “Topaz” type for treating plants, make sure that the toxic mixture does not enter the soil.
Pest Type: Currant and Gooseberry Pest
Row: Diptera – Diptera
Family: Gall midges – Cecidomyiidae
It is found throughout the country. Damages black currants.
The adult is 1.6-1.7 mm long, the abdomen is yellow-orange, and at the end of the abdomen there is a long pointed ovipositor; wings are glassy, covered with thin hairs. Egg 0.2-0.3 mm long, oblong, spindle-shaped. Larva – 2-3 mm, orange-black.
Larvae overwinter in cocoons in the soil. During the budding period, the currants pupate. At the beginning of the budding, adults emerge. Females lay eggs in blackcurrant buds. Larvae regenerate after 3-4 days, feed on the contents of the bud. Due to damage, the buds grow unnaturally, acquire orange-black colors and die. After feeding, which lasts 14-20 days, the larvae pass into the soil, forming a cocoon, remain in it until the spring of next year. One
generation develops per year.
The protective measures are the same as for the current gall midge. However, if the damage is exceeded by a threshold, only one spray with insecticides should be carried out during the period of bud swelling.
Pest Type: Pest of Strawberry and Raspberry
Row: Hymenoptera – Hymenoptera
Family: true sawflies – Tenthredinidae
It is found everywhere. Damages raspberries, blackberries, mountain ash.
The adult is 5–7 mm long, black, covered with sparse hairs, wings are dark, hind legs in the apical part are white, the last segment of the abdomen is somewhat elongated, covering the top of the ovipositor from above. Egg size 1-1.2 mm, white. Larva 10-12 mm long, body dark brown or white on top, head black or brown. Pupa – 8-9 mm, light yellow.
Eonymphs winter in a thin two-layer light brown cocoon in plant debris, sometimes in the soil at a depth of 5-7 cm. Pupate in April. Years of adults of the first generation begin at an average daily air temperature of 11-12 ° C and coincides with the phenophases of raspberry buds blooming. The female lays eggs one at a time in the leaf petioles, less often in the main veins. The laid eggs are clearly visible in small brown incisions. Fertility – 40-50 eggs. Larvae, resurrected after 5-7 days, are kept on the lower surface of the leaf. First, they skeletonize the leaf in the form of windows, then gnaw holes or gnaw the leaf from the edges. After 22-25 days, the larvae complete their feeding and pupate in cocoons. The development of the pupa is completed in 10-15 days, and the second generation takes place, which also develops on raspberry leaves. Two generations are developing over the year. In the southern regions, there is a third.
Predators and parasites play an important role in regulating the sawfly population.
Protective measures. Tillage between rows and under bushes. Destruction of plant debris. With the number of more than 10-12 false caterpillars per 100 sheets – the use of biological products or insecticides at the beginning of the revival of false caterpillars.
Protection of potatoes from pests and the Colorado potato beetle should be carried out throughout the season. Measures and control measures include both special methods of cultivating arable land and the chemical agents used to process planting tubers and seedlings.
Pest Colorado Potato Beetle
Currently, the Colorado potato beetle is widespread throughout Russia. Beetles and larvae are harmed by roughly eating leaves, petioles, and even stems, from seedlings to harvesting.
The greatest harm is done by the Colorado potato beetle in those areas where potatoes were planted too late, that is, the pest, “not wanting it,” appears too early in the phenophases on plants.
Also, the harm from the beetle and its larvae can be very noticeable both in areas with sparse plantings and in areas where a low agricultural background is noted. Almost everywhere, bushes are completely nibbled by this pest, because of which there are large crop losses.
Beetles winter in the soil at a depth of the arable horizon – up to 20-30 cm.
After warming the soil to 14 ° C, they begin to come out of the soil, but not simultaneously, but stretched.
Protecting Potatoes from the Colorado Potato Beetle
Effective protection against the Colorado potato beetle begins with a thorough harvest of tubers in the fall. Beetles immediately populate self-seeding (plants which have already sprouted from tubers not selected in the fall) of personal plots, planting of replacement, as well as plots close to last year’s fields and cultivation sites. In remote areas, the pest appears 2-3 weeks later. Soon, females begin to lay eggs, placing them 20-30 pieces on the back of the leaves. On average, the female lays 400-600 eggs, and individual individuals up to 2400 eggs. After 7-10 days, larvae emerge from the eggs, which live and harm for 15-20 days, during which time they pass 4 ages. The timing of their appearance depends on weather conditions, but usually, it happens in June.
After feeding, the larvae leave in the soil for pupation, and after 10-15 days new bugs appear. Due to the lengthy exit of the beetles from the wintering places in the fields, you can often meet simultaneously wintering beetles and newly appeared. At this time, special protection of potatoes from the Colorado potato beetle is needed.
Hot weather depresses the beetles, and some of the overwintered beetles fall into the summer for up to 30 days or more, the rest period. Due to poor food or lack thereof, beetles may have a temporary suspension of active life for a longer period, and for this reason, they are sometimes in the soil at a dormant stage for up to 3 years. With an average abundance on the field (20–40 larvae and beetles per bush), the leaves are usually destroyed by half, the yield is reduced by 2–3 times, When the leaves are fully eaten, the yield is reduced by 10 times, and what remains will be substandard have poor quality and poor keeping quality.
Methods and Means of Combating the Colorado Potato Beetle
The fight with the Colorado potato beetle should be carried out annually and in a timely manner (regardless of the appearance of the pest and the mass development):
- planting varieties of later ripening – Sotka, Zarevo, Temp, and others, as well as varieties that form a powerful top – Adretta, Nikita, Shurminsky and others;
- planting in optimally early periods on well-filled soils so that the plant “has time to escape” from the still “sleeping” beetle;
- repeated sealing of emerged seedlings with 3-5 cm soil (the bug does not gnaw them in the soil);
- high hilling of bushes with backfilling of lower leaves on which eggs are laid;
- loosening row-spacing 2-3 days after the mass departure of larvae to pupate in the soil;
- removing leaves before harvesting worsens the conditions for preparation for wintering;
- late and deep plowing of fields (2-3 cm below the arable horizon) from under the potato turns the beetles to the surface, where they can then die from the onset of frost.
When larvae of 1-2 age appear, when their number is more than 20 per bush and their population is more than 20% of the bushes, it is recommended to carry out focal or continuous spraying with one of the chemical preparations, which include the following means of combating the Colorado potato beetle:
- arrivo (ambush, sherpa), 25% ke. 1.5 ml per 10 liters of water, with a flow rate of 1–2 hundred parts;
- Sumy alpha, 5% ke – 5 ml per 10 l of water;
- decis, 2.5% ke – 2 ml per 10 l of water;
- kinmix, 5.0% ke – 2.5 ml per 10 liters of water and other drugs approved for use in small farms and the private sector, but not more than two sprayings.
Biological preparations are affordable methods of combating the Colorado potato beetle, they act somewhat more slowly, but they are safer for humans and the environment: Bicol is a new form of bitoxibacillin, consumption is less than 20 g per 10 l of water (instead of 30-50 g of bitoxibacillin); fit over, 0.2% ke. – 4 ml per 10 liters of water. A mixture of fit over 0.2% 4 ml + Bicol 10 g per 10 l of water, not inferior to decis inefficiency.
The first treatment with biological products is carried out at the beginning of the mass hatching of larvae, again after 7-8 days with a population of more than 5 larvae per bush. It is noted that phytoverm also destroys beetles.